Role of diaphragm in respiratory system

January 11th, 2012 | Steve Davis

Diaphragm is composed of voluntary muscles and stretches to the lower-most part of rib cage. Diaphragm is the structure that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities that is comprised of the heart, ribs, and lungs and is particularly accountable for the respiratory operations.

The diaphragm can be separated into 3 sections: the sternal, costal, and lumbar segments. The sternal part of diaphragm consists of the 2 muscular slips from the back of the xiphoid process. Conversely, the costal part combines with the transverse muscle of abdomen. It comprises of the cartilages and nearby parts of the 6 ribs placed around the thoracic cavity. Finally, the lumbar section of the diaphragm consists of lumbocostal arches as well as the crura. The diaphragm has many openings within it to permit the passage of other structures between the abdomen and the thorax. In addition to the minor ones, there are 3 important openings in the diaphragm. The names of the openings are the esophageal, aortic and infeiror vena caval, allowing corresponding structures through them.

Diaphragm is a very important organ of the human body because of the fact that it performs on various tasks which are important to keep someone living. During the process of breathing, the diaphragm contracts to add volume to the thoracic cavity, which enables the lungs to make room for more air. This phenomenon occurs in 2 diverse varieties of respiration. The first is known as abdominal respiration, where the thoracic cavity stretches downwards. The 2nd kind of respiration is referred to as thoracic respiration and enables the thoracic cavity to extend upwards.

The diaphragm also relates to many other tasks that are not connected to breathing. For instance, it is involved in actions such as vomiting and defecation. The diaphragm is involved in all these actions by enhancing the intra-abdominal stress of the human body. In vomiting, the diaphragm may also help to prevent vomiting. This is often done by the diaphragm exerting tension around the esophagus as it passes through the esophageal opening.

The most well-known related actions of the diaphragm is hiccups. These are involuntary and unanticipated contractions of the diaphragm. Cause of hiccups is the rapid rush of air inside the lungs compelling the vocal cords to shut. Despite the fact that it is well known that hiccups are usually bothersome or hard to bear, it must be considered that they’re safe to the human body. Hiccups do commonly vanish rather easily after first appearing. Therefore it is simply a matter of waiting for the diaphragm to become normal.

Further Reading:

Human Anatomy and Physiology

January 1st, 2012 | Steve Davis

The terms anatomy and physiology are often banded around, especially by those in the medical profession. Even more frustratingly the two can often be explained in the most complex of terms, for someone who just wants an overview, the amount of detail can be overwhelming. This article aims to explain anatomy and physiology, not in the terms of complex anatomy books, but in plain English.

Anatomy, essentially, deals with the structural organisation of living things, so you could talk about the anatomy of plants (phytotomy), anatomy of animals (zootomy) or anatomy of humans, for example. The word itself derives from Greek and translates very loosely to cutting up’ or through’. The study of anatomy focuses on learning about the size, shape, and location of structures in the body.

Human anatomy is sub-divided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy is, put simply, anything that can be seen, even if this is through scans or x-rays, so bones, muscles and skin for example. In the industry this is called the macroscopic level, and often involves dissection in order study organs, for example, or muscle. Microscopic anatomy, on the other hand, deals with the parts of the body not visible to the human eye, so anything where you might need a microscope to help you out, studying cells, for example, or tissue.

The study of anatomy is essential for range of jobs, from paramedics to physiotherapists to occupational therapists, nurses, and doctors. The study of anatomy tends to include the viewing of slides under a microscope as well as practical experience of dissection and on some occasions even the inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies).
Physiology, on the other hand, deals with how the body functions, how it works together and all the different systems in place. The two, however, (anatomy and physiology) are inextricably linked, which is why they are often studied together.

Those studying physiology will be told that the body is made up of a host of interacting systems, each with its own combination of functions and purposes. Such systems include the nervous system (brain and spinal cord), musculoskeletal system (bones, ligaments, tendons and cartilage), circulatory system (arteries, vein capillaries), respiratory system (lungs), gastrointestinal system (stomach and gut), integumentary system (skin, hair and nails), urinary system (kidneys and bladder), reproductive system (sex organs), immune system (lymph) and endocrine system (glands). So while anatomy could be considered the study of the makeup of the body, which is rather static, physiology is the study of the various processes happening which make a body function, such as the chemical, physical and electrical processes that regulate your heartbeat, for example, or the level of endorphins released into the body.
Both anatomy and physiology are incredibly complex subjects, if you’re a medical student it is likely your floor and desk space will be drowned in lengthy physiology and anatomy books of every description, as there is much to learn. Both, however, are fascinating topics, and offer an important insight into how our bodies work and why, medical student or not.

Ellie Garwood is a freelance writer interested in a diverse range of topics, for more information on anatomy she recommends the range of anatomy books available at

How to study anatomy

August 8th, 2011 | Steve Davis

Most people feel that anatomy is among the most challenging fields to understand completely. One of many causes behind this particular feeling is that there’s a lot to remember in the subject. It appears to be nearly impossible to the learners. In addition, many of the words are in latin, which a lot of people do not understand. If you must study anatomy by yourself, the issue is made worse a lot more. To make the process of learning simplier and easier you need to split it into 3 steps. When you accomplish that the process of learning becomes much easier and virtually hassle-free. The following are the 3 steps that can develop your learning of anatomy of human body.

Take human anatomy as a visual science:

Students understand effectively once they view the diagrams of subject of study. It truly is excellent if you can proceed to the laboratory to analyze human anatomy first hand. Nevertheless it can be achieved also at your home. You should never underrate the ability of visual images and animation. The illustrations within your book are great but you need to have something more in depth. Today’s technology has come to such a degree that you don’t even require a laboratory. All you need to have is a software program which can reveal to you the muscular and bone structures onto your tv screen in 3d models.

Create associations between names of structures:

It will always be frustrating to attempt to remember the terms you do not fully understand the meaning. Establishing a few guidelines or merging them within sets or simply pairs may greatly aid in your energy to remember those anatomical words. As one example evaluate the usage of terms of direction. It is easy to make a straight forward pair like anterior/posterior. These are opposites of each other. The single thing to memorize is that they go alogside each other. Even if you understand a single of these, the other should come instantly. Such as if you know that posterior is back so consequently anterior is front.

Select the best study manual:

This is a point many people simply ignore. They suggest that every guide is identical and there isn’t any distinction among them. The reality is opposed to this. You count excessively on your manual or book or what you may utilize. Which means you must make certain that it’s the best accessible item. It will confirm that your time isn’t sacrificed simply because you decided not to spend a couple of hours selecting the right item.


Human Anatomy Online

Components of human skeleton

May 1st, 2011 | Steve Davis

Skeletal system is one of the prime systems of the body, which is made up of cartilages, bones and joints. These organs jointly make a tough and rigid type of assembly, generally known as skeleton of human body. The human skeleton is a really distinct construct. It’s rigorous and hard, yet simultaneously it permits movements at a number of spots. Moreover it indicates excellent level of flexibility at specific places much like the back bone.
The very first as well as the most prominent element of skeletal system of body is bone. Bones are in fact of numerous different kinds like short bones, irregular bones, long bones, sesamoid bones and flat bones. Each of thes types has its specific significance in forming the skeletal system. Bone by itself is a distinct variety of connective tissue, that is impregnated by inorganic salts notably the salts of calcium. This kind of impregnation causes it to be robust and stiff, as a consequence it is able to fight forces of compression. In this manner, bones compose a useful system for the entire body to be constructed around.
The other element of the skeletal system is cartilage. Cartilages are of 3 distinct forms: Fibrous Cartilage, Hyaline cartilage and Elastic Cartilage. Every one of them has unique importance. Cartilages are important for elasticity and versatility in the strong bony skeletal framework. Probably the most visible instance of flexibility is the back bone, where pads of fibrous cartilage (Intervertebral cartilaginous discs) can be found in between spinal vertebrae so the backbone is able to manipulate in a variety of pathways. Cartilages as well make a necessary element of articulations, where they protect the joining surfaces of bones to lessen rubbing.
The 3rd element of skeletal system is made by articulations. Articulations are parts in the skeletal frame in which a joining is established between “two bones”, “a bone and cartilage”, or “a cartilage and cartilage”. An important task of articulations in skeletal frame is that they permit motions in the tough and stiff framework. At articulations, the bones may move in many different directions thereby establish different kinds of movements. These movements are crucial for all varieties of body actions. This exhibits the significance of articulations in human skeletal system.
Skeletal system achieves a number of functions in body. Probably the most noticeable of these are: creating leverage for movements of the body, providing strength and support, protection of delicate organs, and production of blood cells. All of these features are imperative for survival and a healthy way of life. The significance of the functions accomplished by the skeletal system could be most certainly appreciated in ailments as a result of anomalies of the parts of skeletal system.

Systems of body: Organ Systems

April 1st, 2011 | Steve Davis

An organ system in fact is a gang of body parts , which work collectively for just one purpose. If any one of these parts fail, it would create a substantial amount of tension on the other body organs, and may possibly induce an entire organ system to de-activate, with the prime result usually appearing to be deadly. The dependance of the body organs on each other is essential for usual functions of life. As an illustration, the digestion , which occurs within the stomach, section of the digestive system, will be useless if ever the intestines stop functioning effectively.
The body of human beings contains 10 systems. These organs systems are divided based on the functions they perform. The organ systems of human body are: excretory, digestive, circulatory, nervous, respiratory, muscular, reproductive, skeletal, endocrine and integumentary. There are problems which can be often affiliated with each system of body and various capabilities are necessary to relieve these problems. A lot of clinical professionals are experts in dealing with problems impacting specified systems of human body. To illustrate, a urologist would cure patients having issues with the urinary component of the system of excretion of human body, or people who require therapy for the problems of reproductive system.
A lot of these organ systems explain themself in the functions they perform for the body. For example, the circulatory system is liable for spreading blood through the body of organism. The system of excretion of human body accounts for cleaning away metabolic wastes. The system of hormones and the integumentary system are a couple of those body systems some people are probably not as experienced with. The endocrine organ system is liable for interaction through cells of body , which manufacture hormones. Several body organs make it possible. The integumentary system is the system ,which is concerened specifically with the skin, and its appendages.
It may be conceivable to operate not having several portions of a system, but certainly not without the major functionality. In the event of the integumentary organ system, for example, it would be unachievable to keep existence with no skin and its appendages. It’s always particularly possible, however, to keep existence free of hair. Although it must be noted hair, or fur, could be a lot more essential for a few species compared to it might be for other ones. For that reason, the way each organ system of body behaves, and its significance, is to some extent influenced by the species.
Many types of animals possess multiple systems. There are numerous creatures, such as the jellyfish, which is viewed as the species of animals that contain no system, at least not in the traditional meaning. The one organ system that can be considered a system in the jellyfish is digestive organ system. As opposed to creatures similar to jellyfish, body of a human has a full group of 10 systems, which are completely established and efficient.

The study of the systems of human body is a part of the overall study of human anatomy. To learn more about anatomy, visit:

What is human anatomy?

Importance of learning anatomy

Basic medical sciences: Anatomy and Physiology

March 25th, 2011 | Steve Davis

Human Anatomy and physiology of the human body 2 distinct but closely affiliated principles which are typically learned jointly. In simpler terms, human anatomy is strictly the study of morphology of the body of human beings, on the other hand human physiology is related to the explanation of functions of individual tissues together with organ systems within the human. On the larger aspect, human anatomy elaborates the structure whereas human physiology elaborates the functionality of human body. An understanding of human anatomy is essential for the understanding of human physiology. Similarly studying human physiology is vital to individuals who want to understand how anatomical structures succeed. Thereby it is obvious that both anatomy  and physiology are related one to the other intently and both need to be learned and understood at the same time.
Both human anatomy and human physiology had been learnt for centuries. People related to the medical field have frequently held a desire for how they and various other creatures are structured and how they perform their work. Most people all over history of medicine have also been interested in assessing and diversifying various living things to discover commonalities and recognize variations.
The research of human anatomy is focused on studying the proportions, shape, and specific location of various structures in human body. It typically focuses about dissection, whereby illustrations are carefully cut up to disclose the structures inside. Large structures can be appreciated with the naked eye, or observed with magnification of a specialized instrument called microscope for more detailed study. Throughout the dissection procedure, students can carefully register all sorts of things they go through, and then determine the way systems in the human body are connected. An incomplete perception of human anatomy can lead to significant dilemma for students of physiology and other medical sciences, for the reason that understanding human anatomy is a essential area of studying the actual advancement of health problems.
Human anatomy might be considered a static study, whereas physiology is much more dynamic, concerning the chemical, physical, and electrical systems which can make an individual work, from the tasks that reinstate heart beating rate to the complex systems included in perception of visual signals. For you to study physiology, it is often necessary to study living human bodies or systems to totally recognize physical tasks, like the discharge of neurotransmitters within the brain of human beings and the saving of energy in cells of body. Both human anatomy plus human physiology are generally analyzed using dissection as well as clinical studies of biological samples from the specimen.
Students related to the medical field learn human anatomy together with human physiology broadly over their period of study, so that they learn how the body of human beings runs all together, and how the various systems inside human body are bonded with one another. This field of study even create a subject of benefit for those in different allied health  duties, which range from x-ray specialists who need to have a complete knowledge of human anatomy to undertake their job.
The structure and function of parts of human body are closely associated with each other and literally, the understanding of a single of the two is partial without the other. Given that the content of human anatomy is structure and the topic of human physiology is function, it is obviously comparable to mention that human anatomy and human physiology are very closely linked to each other and the study of a single of the two only is imperfect without the other. Despite the presence of the tight relationship, it will always be necessary to have a border amongst both of them simply because both areas of study are really substantial in range and grasping both simultaneously is a tough process.

To learn the basics of human anatomy, visit: What is human anatomy?

Respiration versus breathing

March 9th, 2011 | Steve Davis

Typically the terms respiration and breathing are implemented as if they have the same meaning but genuinely the two are very different processes and they really need to be distinguished from one another. In easy terms the respiration is a large range process of the living body and breathing is just a part of the complete large scale process of respiration. Breathing is the establishing point of the process of respiration and respiration is a process containing its roots at the cellular level of the bodies of living organisms. To intricate the main difference between respiration and breathing, they should be independently recognized and appreciated.

  • Respiration: Respiration is amongst the characteristic processes of life and without the process of respiration life cannot thrive. It is among the list of essential features of life. The process of respiration can be described as the process in which the organic nutrition is put into use at cellular level to produce energy for all the exercises of the body. From the definition it is clear that respiration is the process which is certainly liable for creation of energy for the activities of living organisms. Without respiration the energy requirement of the living bodies cannot be fulfilled. Due to the fact energy is regularly required by the living organisms thus respiration is likewise a ongoing process and it persists 24 hours a day. During this process of respiration oxygen is used to oxidize the organic food components to obtain energy from them thus oxygen is a important requirement of the process of respiration and without oxygen respiration cannot happen. This particular process of gaining energy from diet takes place at the cellular stage however transport of oxygen to the cells and receiving of oxygen takes place at a larger stage.
  • Breathing: Respiration really needs oxygen to burn up the food to generate energy from it and breathing is the point of respiration where oxygen is brought inside the body. Respiration is a chemical process but breathing is a simply mechanical process in which the lungs suck the air in then expel it out. The moment the air is sucked in, the oxygen is transferred from the lungs to the blood stream from where it goes to the cells of the body. After the air is expelled out, the carbon dioxide is excreted from the body. So it is clear that breathing is that phase of the process of respiration in which the body gets oxygen from surroundings and lets off carbon dioxide out.

Evolution of skeleton

March 8th, 2011 | Steve Davis

The evolution of diverse classes of multicellular animals displays the evolution of skeleton. The earliest vertebrates were fish like having diverse organs for swimming. The jawless fishes swam with undulations of their body. Typically there were no paired fins and the body moved by alternating waves or ripples passing throughout the body from head to tail of the organism. These waves passed by means of the muscles on either side of the body. This caused the body to undulate from side to side. These undulations were transmitted by the tail and the back of the body as a chain of backward pressuring against the denser water and as a reply to these collections of backward pushes the animals of that time gained a very productive strategy of moving proficiently. This is the major kind of locomotion in the vertebrates. For such swimming animals the backbone is generally flexible. This character is found in fishes where the vertebral column does not have the articulation for locking the individual bones.
Amid the fishes there was a kind of lobe finned fish in which the paired fins were supported by a series of bones set up in distinct way. At the base of every single fin was a single prolonged bone. On the upper area was one more bone called the shoulder bone and closer to the lower end was two bones long in nature resting alongside. On the top of each long bone were several shorter bones. This was the starting point of the production of four legged or tetrapod vertebrate skeleton. The long bone was that of the upper part of the arm or leg and two lower long bones were that of the central part of the arm or leg. The several bones were of the feet or hands. Hence the lobe finned fishes can be deemed the ancestors and forefathers of amphibians. As the amphibians progressed and left the water they was mandated to confront the force of gravity of earth and had to stand tense water issues on land. Hence the vertebral column or back none became better for the support of the body and the vertebrae were therefore linked by interlocking pieces. In the amphibians the legs sprawled outside from the body so the animals dragged themselves on the ground. This type of locomotion also characterized the first reptiles. There seemed to be a phenomena amid reptiles of bringing feet underneath the body and promoting the body off the ground. Some of the reptiles adopted this approach which was successful for walking.
From the reptiles couple of divergent lines appeared. In several reptiles forelimbs were transformed into wings and turned the ancestors of birds since they implemented the practice of flight. Other reptiles grew to be bipedal in course of time. In mammals the bones of limbs have undergone modifications; they go walking on hind limbs or legs and the forelimbs are put into use for serving. One very exclusive type of locomotion noticed amid the primates is brachiation. They swing through the trees by employing their grasping hands and long arms.

Further Reading:

The human skeletal system

March 7th, 2011 | Steve Davis

The human skeleton incorporates both fused and individual bones reinforced and supplemented by tendons (portion of a muscle through which it hooks up to bone), muscles and ligaments (bands of connecive tissue through which two or more bones are kept with each other at joints). It behaves as a scaffold which holds organs and covers organs such as the brain and heart. Though the teeth really don’t comprise of tissue usually found in other bones, the teeth are thought to be bones and are a member of the skeletal system. The major bone in the body is the femur in the upper leg, and the minutest is the stapes bone in the middle ear. In a grownup, the skeleton makes up around 16 % of the total body weight, and one half of this weight is water.

Fused bones comprise of those of the pelvis and also the cranium. Only a few bones are interconnected directly: There are three bones in each middle ear called the ossicles that articulate only with each other.

There are 206 bones in the grownup human skeleton (this quantity relies on whether the pelvic bones are counted as one or three bones on each side, whether the coccyx or tail bone is counted as one or four distinct bones, and would not count the variable wormian bones in between skull sutures. Moreover, the sacrum is ordinarily counted as a individual bone, as opposed to five fused vertebrae. There is additionally a variable number of smaller sesamoid bones, usually seen in tendons. The patella or kneecap on each leg is a sample of a greater sesamoid bone. The patellae are counted in the total number of bones, as they are consistent). The number of bones deviates in between individuals and with age – newborn babies possess around 270 bones quite a few of which fuse together. These bones are sorted into a longitudinal axis, the axial skeleton, to which the appendicular skeleton is associated.

The human skeleton normally takes 20 years before it is absolutely developed. In many animals, the bones incorporate marrow, which provides blood cells.

A lot of the human skeleton preserves the historic segmental pattern present in all vertebrates (mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians) with primary units being replicated. This layout is specially clear in the vertebral column and in the ribcage.

Visit: Human Skeletal System for more details.

Divisions of human anatomy

March 2nd, 2011 | Steve Davis

For all medical students, 3 branches of science are considered as complementary. The students ought to learn and understand them fully. These branches of science are named fundamental medical sciences and are: Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry.


Anatomy is the 1st fundamental medical science and can be deemed as the most crucial one as well. It is the study of human morphology in a scientific way. In easier terms, human anatomy can be explained as the the basic medical science that deals with the study of the structure of human body. Human anatomy is entirely a structural study of human body and deals with nothing else. It introduces a medical student to the stage in which all the events happen. It is very vital to have a good grasp of human anatomy to know other medical sciences such as pathology, medicine, physical therapy etc.
Anatomy explains all aspects of the structural detail of human body and because there is loads of information available on human structure, anatomy has become a large branch of science. There is so much knowledge in this branch of science that it has virtually become impossible to learn it in a straight forward way. Therefore to make the process of knowing and understanding easy, human anatomy is divided into 3 major subdivisions, These subdivisions are explained below.

Gross anatomy:

It is the 1st subdivision of human anatomy and is understood as the most crucial of them all. Gross anatomy is the gross study of human body structure. It deals with macroscopic details of the structure of human body and does not need the usage of any particular instrument. Gross anatomy has 2 approaches of study. The first approach, known as the systemic approach is the one in which human body is deemed to be composed of different organ systems like muscular system and skeletal system. The 2nd approach, known as the regional approach is the one in which human body is considered to be composed of distinct regions such as head, upper limb, lower limb etc. A medical student can study gross anatomy based on any of the two approaches, however, it is wise that those medical students who wish to abide by a career connected to surgery really should follow the regional approach.

Microscopic anatomy:

Microscopic anatomy is the 2nd subdivision of human anatomy and it deals with microscopic study of various structures of human body. In this subdivision, only the microscopic details of human body are considered. To study the microscopic details, the use of a exclusive device called Microscope is utilized. Microscopic anatomy is sometimes referred to as Histology, however, it is well worth referencing here that histology is itself a branch of microscopic anatomy. Microscopic anatomy is very necessary for all medical students but its value is notably huge for those who wish to follow a career related to pathology and medicine.

Basic Anatomy:

It is the 3rd subdivision of human anatomy. Sometimes it is not considered as a main subdivision, however, it should be plainly recognized that without first understanding the basic anatomy, it is very tricky to understand gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Basic anatomy introduces a medical student to the terms used in human anatomy and to all the basic concepts, which are required in difficult study of human body structure.

Suggested reading for more details:

Detailed Human Anatomy

Systems of human body

Basic anatomy

Histology | Microscopic anatomy

The Cardiovascular System of Human Body

February 25th, 2011 | Steve Davis

Human body is made up of various different organ systems, which are all fundamental for the success of human body. One of the more valuable ones is the cardiovascular system. It is made of 3 primary parts: Heart, Blood and Blood vessels.
If you look at the word “Cardiovascular”, you will fairly quickly recognize that it is made of two section words: “Cardio” and “Vascular”. Cardio is taken from cardiac, which means pertaining to heart and vascular means pertaining to blood vessels. So the term cardiovascular itself shows the significance of it.
The most valuable component part of the cardiovascular system is heart. It is so valuable for the success of human body that lacking a normal functioning heart, there is no expectation of life for the particular person. Heart is a hollow muscular organ that performs as a potent pump to push blood around the human body inside the blood vessels. It has strong muscular walls, which are constructed from special muscle fibers that are varied from all the other muscle fibers of human body. The muscle of heart is accordingly regarded as a individual type of muscle and is known as cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle is very potent and robust and hence human heart is so strong in conducting its pumping action that it demands hardly any rest throughout the total lifetime of a man or woman. The muscular part of the heart, which forms the walls, is lined on the exterior by pericardium and on the interior by endocardium. Human heart is not a straightforward hollow pump. Instead it is greatly developed and is divided up into 4 chambers segregated from each other by intervening walls and valves.
The next section of the cardiovascular system, the blood, is also very valuable. Lacking blood, the theory of life for a human body becomes unachievable. Blood supplies all the mandatory contents to all tissues of body and takes out waste products from them. It is pumped by the heart and proceeds inside the blood vessels to complete its responsibilities in the complete human body. Blood is composed of 2 parts: plasma and formed elements. Plasma makes about 55% of the blood and main section of it is water. Alternatively, formed elements make about 45% of the blood and are of 3 primary varieties: Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Platelets.
The third part of cardiovascular system, the blood vessels, forms an massive system for the stream of blood in the overall human body. They are of 3 important types. The types that supply blood away from the heart to the body tissues are called arteries. They have thicker walls and are highly stretchy. The 2nd category of blood vessels are very minimal and can be observed exclusively with microscope. They are described as capillaries and there job is to confirm ideal exchange of products amongst blood and body cells. The 3rd type of blood vessels; veins, convey the blood back to heart from body tissues. They have reasonably leaner walls and are not very stretchy.

Suggested Links for further reading:

The cardiovascular system of human body

Detailed Anatomy of human heart

The cardiovascular system